Bragging as a strategy: What boasting buys and costs a candidate

first_imgShare Share on Facebook And with its multidimensional framework, the study goes much further in revealing more nuanced scenarios in which sometimes the best idea is to keep one’s mouth shut.Self-evaluation and others’ perceptionsTo do the research, Heck and Brown Professor Joachim Krueger conducted a series of online experiments involving a total of 400 volunteers over two main phases.In the first phase, participants read single-page descriptions of people who said they scored better than average on an ability test and people who said they did worse. For each one the volunteers also learned their test scores so they’d know whether any bragging — or self-effacement — was based in truth. Half the volunteers were told the tested ability was intelligence while the other half were told that the test was of morality.In every case the hypothetical subjects were male, to control for potentially confounding effects of gender.The volunteers were then asked to rate the competence and the morality of the four different categories of individuals — those who bragged and scored high, those who bragged but scored low, those who self-effaced and scored high, and those who self-effaced and scored low.The participants judged the people who bragged about their intelligence and scored high as the most competent. They were even judged as more competent than people who scored high but said they scored low, suggesting that when competence is the issue, it pays to advertise. But correct braggers were not seen as any more moral than people who self-effaced, whether the self-effacers were actually smart or not. In fact, those who claimed to be worse than average were seen as more moral than those who claimed to be better.Participants reserved harsh judgment for individuals who bragged about their performance but were proven wrong by the evidence. Such people were deemed significantly less competent and less moral than any other man. The same was true for undeserving braggers when the test was of their morality, rather than their intelligence.“In all cases, claiming to be better than average when the evidence shows otherwise is the worst strategic move you can make,” Heck said.In a second phase, half of an entirely new group of 200 volunteers did the same thing as participants in the first experiment, though now all the hypothetical men were all talking and testing on intelligence, not morality. Given essentially the same experimental procedure, these volunteers produced very similar results as the participants in the first phase, showing that the results could be replicated in a new group of volunteers.But the other half of the new second-phase group were given something different to consider. Some of them got information on the individuals’ test results, but didn’t know whether they bragged or self-effaced. Others learned who claimed to be better than average and who claimed to be worse, but didn’t see their test results. These volunteers were asked to judge the competence and morality of the different types of hypothetical men.Not surprisingly, people who scored high on the intelligence test were seen as more competent but not any more moral than those who scored low. But when scores were not known, they were caught in the humility paradox: those who bragged about their intelligence were believed to be more competent, but less moral, than those who said they didn’t do well.Combining the results, it was clear in the data that men who were smart and said so were perceived as more competent than men who were smart but didn’t say so, or men who said they were smart but for whom evidence wasn’t available.Meanwhile, self-effacers were perceived as less competent when their scores were not known than men who self-effaced when their scores were known, regardless of what the scores showed. In other words, just declaring oneself to be not particularly smart is worse for one’s perceived competence than being shown to be right about not being smart, or being shown to be smart despite one’s gloomy self-assessment.“This pattern holds an intriguing lesson for a person of low self-confidence,” Heck and Krueger wrote. “The winning strategy might be to abstain from making any self-related assessment unless objective results are at hand.”Scenarios and strategiesIndeed, the paper is rife with such guidance, Heck said. People who want to know whether to brag, to self-efface or to say nothing need to know whether their goal is to improve their perceived competence or morality, and whether the facts back them up, contradict them, or will never be known.“The answer depends on which aspect of your reputation you are concerned with,” Heck said. “If you are more concerned with your perceived morality — your likability, trustworthiness and ethics — the answer is simple: avoid self-enhancing claims, even if the evidence supports them. Here, humility is the best option.“If you are more concerned with your perceived competence — your intelligence or capability to get the job done — things are more nuanced,” he said. “Here, you should only claim to be better than average if you are sure (or fairly certain) that (a) the evidence will support this claim, or (b) supporting evidence will never be revealed. If there is a possibility that the evidence will invalidate your self-enhancing claim, the best option is to simply remain humble.”That can pose a problem for many political candidates, who rarely remain humble, even as they are subjected to fact-checks that don’t always go their way. LinkedIn Emailcenter_img Life is full of auditions in which it might seem advantageous, if not outright required, to describe oneself as above average. Think of job interviews, dating or running for president of the United States. A new study that measured how people judge those who made such boasts and those who didn’t, however, showed that making self-superiority or self-effacement claims is a strategy with considerable complexity and risk, often requiring a person to know whether evidence of their true ability could come to light.Probably the most intuitive result of the study is that there is a significant tradeoff, a “humility paradox,” in which individuals who claim to be of above-average ability will be perceived as more competent, but sometimes less moral, than those who remain humble. And once actual evidence of ability comes into play, those who unduly inflate their self-image pay the steepest price on both aspects of their character.“Our biggest theoretical contribution is that the paper casts the decision to claim to be better than others as a strategic choice,” said Patrick Heck, lead author of the study in Social Psychology and a graduate student in Brown University’s Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences. “It turns out that if you know the evidence isn’t ever going to show up, then your reputation as a competent person is in good shape when you claim to be better than others — but the opposite is true for your reputation as a moral person.” Pinterest Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Supporting your dog’s psychological needs can boost your own well-being and reduce distress

first_imgShare on Twitter LinkedIn Share Pinterest Share on Facebookcenter_img Email A study found that dog owners show heightened well-being not only when their pets meet their psychological needs, but when they make an effort to meet these needs for their pets, too. These findings were published in the Journal of Happiness Studies.Psychology literature has documented various ways that pet ownership can improve one’s quality of life – something called the “pet effect”. Researchers Yaniv Kanat-Maymon and associates propose that the pet effect can be partly explained by the giving and receiving of psychological support between pets and their owners.Research in humans has shown that the act of caregiving for close others has been associated with psychological wellness for the caregiver. “By extension, then,” the study authors say, “if owners perceive their dogs as close others, it is reasonable to assume that being attuned to what are seen as the dog’s important psychological needs can be need fulfilling for owners, and this, in turn, may be reflected in their enhanced well-being, reduced distress, and increased closeness.” A total of 104 dog owners between the ages of 16-74 took part in a 21-day diary study where they answered questions about their relationships with their dogs on a daily basis. As a measure of receiving need support from their dogs, participants rated items like, “I feel that my dog really cares for and loves me.” As an assessment of providing need support to their dogs, subjects rated items like, “When I interacted with my dog, I tried to show it that I really care for it.” The questionnaire included need support assessments that measured each of the three basic psychological needs outlined by self-determination theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.  Participants also provided assessments of daily life satisfaction, daily happiness, and daily psychological distress. Finally, they answered an adapted version of the Daily Relationship Quality Scale to measure their perceived closeness to their dog.Results showed that owners who gave more need support to their dogs had higher well-being and felt increased closeness towards their dogs. Additionally, they experienced less psychological distress. Modeling analysis further showed that the amount of need support given by dog owners predicted daily fluctuations in owners’ well-being, psychological distress, and relationship with their pets.As was expected, the level of need support that owners felt they received from their dogs was also associated with enhanced well-being and closeness, and less distress. However, the authors highlight that the effects of giving support were shown “over and above the effects of receiving need support”, suggesting that providing need support to a pet is a “unique source of need fulfilment in and of itself.”The researchers explain that pet owners tend to project human characteristics onto their pets and may, therefore, perceive their pets as having the same psychological needs as humans. “If dogs are perceived as having basic psychological needs, trying to support these needs can be beneficial to the care provider in the same manner as supporting the needs of close humans is beneficial.” The authors suggest that future studies should consider whether the extent to which people humanize their pets – known as anthropomorphism – might influence the benefits received from providing need support.The authors express that these findings add to researchers’ understanding of the pet effect, suggesting that simply owning a pet is not enough to boost well-being. “For instance,” they say, “having a dog for the purpose of intimidating burglars may have little to do with basic needs satisfaction and thus is less likely to have an impact on psychological wellness.” Rather, they add, “having a dog for companionship purposes is likely to involve both giving and receiving need support and will have well-being benefits.”The study, “The Benefits of Giving as well as Receiving Need Support in Human–Pet Relations”, was authored by Yaniv Kanat‑Maymon, Shira Wolfson, Rinat Cohen, and Guy Roth.(Image by Stano_design from Pixabay)last_img read more

Visteon Mourns Loss of Board Member Robert Teeter

first_imgDEARBORN, MI — Visteon Chairman and CEO Peter Pestillo today extended condolences to the family of Robert Teeter, a member of the company’s board of directors who died Sunday after an illness at age 65. AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement Teeter had been a director of Visteon since the company became independent in June 2000, and was re-elected to the board on May 12. He was president of Coldwater Corp., an Ann Arbor, Mich.-based provider of consulting and research services. Prior to Coldwater Corp., Teeter held several senior management positions including president of Market Opinion Research from 1966 to 1987. During that time he coordinated public opinion polls for several Republican presidents and political candidates. At the time of his death, Teeter also served on the boards of the Bank of Ann Arbor, Kaydon Corp. and United Parcel Service, Inc. “We are deeply saddened by the loss of Bob Teeter, whose leadership, foresight and strategic counsel have been hugely important to Visteon,” Pestillo said. “On behalf of Visteon’s 72,000 employees around the world, I offer my condolences to his wife Betsy and their family. Our thoughts and prayers are with them.” _______________________________________ Click here to view the rest of today’s headlines.,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement DeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business.  LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisement DeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain. With more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit. last_img read more

Rehabbed Sea Turtles Released Despite COVID-Hardships

first_img Share New York Marine Rescue Center team-members release rehabilitated sea turtles on July 15. Independent/Courtesy New York Marine Rescue CenterDespite the pandemic, rehabilitation work at the New York Marine Rescue Center had to continue because a slew of sea turtles’ lives depended on it.On Wednesday, July 15, team-members released eight sea turtles rehabilitated from the 2019 cold-stun season.While the four species of sea turtles known to inhabit New York waters can strand for any number of reasons, including boat strikes and hook ingestion, the number one reason for rehabilitation is a phenomenon called cold-stunning. Starting in late October and early November, sea turtles can be found stranded on the beach, lethargic and buoyant, similar to hypothermia.The rescue center is the primary response team for marine mammals and sea turtles and also maintains the only facility permitted to rehabilitate both seals and sea turtles in the State of New York, according to Maxine Montello, the rescue program director. The facility is located at the Long Island Aquarium in Riverhead.The organization received its first cold-stunned turtle report on November 9, 2019, what would be the first of 85 reported sea turtles strandings due to cold snaps on Long Island.Two sea turtles make their way to the ocean. Independent/Courtesy New York Marine Rescue CenterWhile the marine rescue center depends heavily on volunteers, the volunteer program had to be suspended on March 15 as coronavirus cases began to spike on Long Island. Only essential staff — two full-time and two part-timers — have been allowed onsite since, Montello explained. “This small team is responsible for managing the animals in the hospital while also responding to sick and injured marine mammals and sea turtles in the field,” she said.Still, the staff remains dedicated to the preservation and conservation of marine mammals and sea turtles, she added. The eight sea turtles recently released locally are among a total of 30 animals released back into the environment this year.Sea turtle releases can occur when a veterinarian clears them medically. While many of the turtles, picked up November through January, are ready for release after only a few months of rehabilitation, the water temperatures are usually not conducive to a release. Ideal water temperatures are about 68 degrees.Some turtles are taken south for release, Montello said. Her team coordinates with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and a network of partners to set up releases in the south. Sixteen turtles were transported out of state for a southern release.The eight recent releases were given the green light once East End waters reached the ideal temperature, which is usually late June.Campanelli before its release. Independent/Courtesy New York Marine Rescue CenterAmong them was “Pici,” a juvenile Atlantic green sea turtle, that was the first cold-stunned turtle reported of the 2019 season, after a concerned citizen found it stranded in Southampton and called the center. The turtle was admitted with an internal temperature of 11 degrees Celsius and was missing a small portion of its front right flipper and underwent nine months of rehab.“Torchio,” a juvenile Atlantic green sea turtle found stranded on November 16, 2019 near Southold, had an initial internal temperature of 4.8 degrees Celsius. This turtle received weekly shell treatment in which manuka honey was applied topically to help with some of the minor carapace damage.Then there was “Campanelli,” a juvenile Kemp’s ridley, found on Long Beach in Sag Harbor on November 21, along with three others. “Campanelli was very weak and had a heart rate of less than 1 beat per minute. A normal sea turtle heart beat is around 32 beats per minute,” the center said in a newsletter about each of the turtles. During the rehab, the turtle doubled in weight. Campanelli was returned to the ocean with one of its stranding mates.A turtle named “Zoodle” had its glucose monitored daily at the center after being found on Navy Beach in Montauk on November 23. Low glucose levels are common in cold-stunned sea turtles, and it was also provided various supplements and vitamins.“In addition to an increase in work-load, our organization has seen a decrease in daily donations due to the aquarium being closed, not being able to provide in-person educational programing and lastly not being able to hold our annual gala,” Montello said.“We still have another eight turtles in-house that are not ready for release but should be ready before the end of the summer and they will be released here in New York as well,” she added.taylor@indyeastend.comlast_img read more

CGG eyes financial restructuring amid high debts

first_imgFrench geophysical services company CGG is planning to undertake financial restructuring to improve its balance sheet as the company’s debt level is ‘too high.’According to a statement by the geophysical company on Thursday, in a market that remains difficult, multi-client sales are estimated at circa $135 million in the fourth quarter of 2016, with a level of prefunding in line with the target, a prefunding rate above 80% on an annual basis, but an after-sales volume below expectations.At the group level, the company’s 4Q revenues are expected to be the highest quarterly revenues in 2016. Net debt should amount to circa $2.315 billion as at December 31, in line with the target to be below $2.4 billion at the end of 2016.CGG noted  that, given the difficult market environment, the company, as a protective measure, engaged in discussions starting December 9 with various lenders, French and US revolving credit facilities and the Nordic loan, and they agreed on December 31, 2016, to “disapply” the maintenance covenants at that date.Debt too highIn this context, with a market environment expected to remain similar in 2017 and to continue to weigh on its revenues, the company stated it considers that the group’s debt level is too high. The company further added it intends to start discussions with all the stakeholders in their various jurisdictions in order to achieve a financial restructuring.The objective of this restructuring would be to provide the company with a level of indebtedness and cost of debt that is substantially reduced and sustainably adapted to its revenues, CGG explained. To that end, the company said it will make proposals to its creditors and to its shareholders.CGG also said that, in order to facilitate discussions with all stakeholders, the company wishes to have the ability to request the appointment of an ad hoc representative, which requires the agreement of the relevant creditors, in accordance with the various credit agreements and bond documents.Jean-Georges Malcor, CEO, CGG, said: “After the effective execution of our industrial Transformation Plan and in market conditions that are expected to remain very difficult, our priority is now to improve our balance sheet and quickly restore financial flexibility to the company.”last_img read more

MoJ could face judicial review challenge over civil cost reforms

first_imgCharitable group the Public Law Project (PLP) has threatened to launch a legal challenge to the Ministry of Justice’s civil costs and funding reforms. London firm Leigh Day & Co has sent a letter before action to the justice secretary Ken Clark on behalf of the PLP, a national legal charity that aims to improve access to public law remedies for those whose access to justice is restricted. PLP seeks to challenge the way the MoJ plans to implement Lord Justice Jackson’s reforms. In particular, it is challenging the MoJ’s decision to abolish the recoverability of conditional fee agreement success fees, without also introducing other key reforms put forward by Jackson to mitigate the impact on access to justice for those seeking judicial reviews. In personal injury cases, the MoJ has proposed the introduction of costs protection for claimants – so-called qualified one way costs shifting – which means loosing claimants do not face the risk of having to pay the substantial legal costs of defendant bodies. The sums awarded for general damages will also increase. But for judicial review claims, the MoJ has decided not to implement the costs protection measure for claimants, with the result that the government and other state bodies will be able to recover costs from citizens who unsuccessfully challenge them. PLP claims this will deter ordinary citizens from mounting challenges and reduce their ability to obtain access to justice. It also claims that it is not lawful for the MoJ to introduce such radical changes to the system on the basis of ‘perfunctory consultation’ and in the ‘absence of any reasoned justification’. PLP also considers that the proposals are unlawful in view of the UK’s common law and international law obligations to ensure access to justice. Its director Diane Astin said: ‘PLP believes that the MoJ’s decision not to implement Lord Justice Jackson’s proposals on costs protection for most claimants in judicial review claims has not been thought through. ‘The proposed changes are likely to have a seriously detrimental effect on the ability of individuals and groups to challenge unlawful conduct by public bodies.’ Astin said the proposals should have been consulted on properly. She urged the government to withdraw its plans pending a thorough consultation on the likely impact on access to justice. Jamie Beagent, solicitor at Leigh Day & Co, said: ‘Access to justice is a fundamental right. The MoJ’s proposals will seriously hamper that right. ‘To undermine a key means by which the public can access the constitutional court of this country without introducing the balancing reforms recommended by Lord Justice Jackson is unjustifiable.’ A Ministry of Justice spokesperson said: ‘The government set out its position on the reform of civil litigation funding and costs on 29 March. ‘This followed careful consideration of the responses received during a full public consultation. We have received a letter from Leigh Day and Co and will respond in due course.’last_img read more

Lawyers voice backlash fears over EU patent court move

first_imgThe government’s decision to join the new European patent regime could prompt a backlash from MPs, lawyers have warned. Amid uncertainty following the referendum in June, intellectual property minister Baroness Neville-Rolfe said last week that the UK intended to ratify the unitary patent and court system.For the new regime to come into force, only Germany’s ratification is now required. A UK division of the Unified Patent Court (UPC) is due to open in Aldgate Tower, London.While the court will ultimately be answerable to the Court of Justice of the European Union, the Intellectual Property Office said the UPC was ‘not an EU institution’.Neville-Rolfe (pictured) stressed the decision should not be seen as indicating the government’s position in negotiations with the EU. However, IP lawyers said this could be interpreted as pointing to a ‘soft Brexit’ strategy – and prompt a backlash.Ron Moscona, a partner at international firm Dorsey & Whitney, described the announcement as ‘unexpected’, with most observers believing the prospect of granting further supremacy of EU law and enhanced jurisdiction to the CJEU to be politically unlikely following the Brexit poll result. ‘The decision to ratify will require parliamentary approval, so there is of course the potential for parliamentary scrutiny and further delays,’ he said.Gwilym Roberts, partner and chairman of IP firm Kilburn & Strode, said: ‘Unless the government can communicate the subtlety that this is a beneficial but ultimately extra-EU solution, then this ratification promise may be viewed (wrongly) with suspicion.’While the government’s statement that the UPC was not an EU instituion was ‘semantically true’, EU-wide injunctions will be issued as a result of judgments, multinational panels of judges will sit on disputes and the CJEU will hear high-level challenges, Roberts said.last_img read more

​Just one dodgy scheme could drain compensation fund – SRA chief

first_imgA single ‘get-rich-quick’ investment scheme that goes bad could wipe out the £48m compensation fund, the chief executive of the Solicitors Regulation Authority warned this morning.Paul Philip was speaking at the Law Society’s annual Risk and Compliance conference in London, ahead of the publication of a new consultation on the scope and scale of professional indemnity insurance. That long-awaited consultation will be published next Friday, he revealed. Philip told around 300 solicitors that ‘get-rich-quick’ schemes fronted by law firms pose a real threat to the integrity of the profession’s client redress arrangements. He cited schemes that ‘offer a 15% return in a year from investing in car parking spaces, hotel rooms, or housing estates in Bulgaria that don’t exist’.Hundreds of millions of pounds can be funnelled through the client account by ‘one-man band’ firms that disappear, leaving the client high and dry, he said. ‘We have six, seven, eight cases where large sums of money have gone through client account where there is no underlying transaction. There is no one to litigate against but a claim can be made against the compensation fund. One of those claims could wipe out the fund.’The consultation next Friday will also address the health of the compensation fund as well as PII. Minimum PII cover is currently set at £2m in most cases. A previous reform proposal foundered in 2014 when the oversight regulator, the Legal Services Board, blocked SRA plans to cut minimum cover from £2m to £500,000.last_img read more

World rail market May 2014

first_imgFrance: SNCF has awarded Armor-Lux a contract to supply new uniforms for 33000 customer-facing personnel. Netherlands: Thales is to install and maintain 153 ticket gates and 45 ticket vending machines on Amsterdam’s North-South metro line. The gates will feature a 3D camera instead of beam sensors, which Thales says will improve passenger flow and security. Turkey: Tenders have been called for the construction of a railway test facility at Alpu near Eskiehir. USA: Transport agency TriMet has awarded INIT a contract to implement smart card ticketing for light rail, commuter rail and bus services in Portland, Oregon. As part of an regenerated energy recovery project, EPX is installing Ioxus ultracapacitors in 20 ft shipping containers on the Long Island Rail Road network.last_img

Britain adds Nigeria’s naira to list of accepted trade currencies

first_imgFILE PHOTO: A man counts the Nigerian naira at a currency exchange market in Ikeja district in Lagos, Nigeria August 12, 2017. REUTERS/Akintunde Akinleye/File Photo FILE PHOTO: A man counts the Nigerian naira at a currency exchange market in Ikeja district in Lagos, Nigeria August 12, 2017. REUTERSBritain’s export finance agency is set to add Nigeria’s naira to its list of pre-approved currencies.The move will allow the agency to finance transactions with Nigerian businesses in the local currency.The naira will become one of three West African currencies that UK Export Finance has pre-approved.Analysts have welcomed the impact of the financing option on the local currency. However, they say the move may increase Nigeria’s liability as trades mature for settlement.Analysts also question the rate at which funds would be disbursed, since local interest rates are in high double-digits.The naira financing will follow the same structure as someone buying in sterling, except that Nigerian firms taking out a loan in the local currency can benefit from a UK government-backed guarantee, Reuters said.Britain in 2016 voted to leave the European Union, forcing London to rethink its trade ties with the rest of the world.last_img read more