Bragging as a strategy: What boasting buys and costs a candidate

first_imgShare Share on Facebook And with its multidimensional framework, the study goes much further in revealing more nuanced scenarios in which sometimes the best idea is to keep one’s mouth shut.Self-evaluation and others’ perceptionsTo do the research, Heck and Brown Professor Joachim Krueger conducted a series of online experiments involving a total of 400 volunteers over two main phases.In the first phase, participants read single-page descriptions of people who said they scored better than average on an ability test and people who said they did worse. For each one the volunteers also learned their test scores so they’d know whether any bragging — or self-effacement — was based in truth. Half the volunteers were told the tested ability was intelligence while the other half were told that the test was of morality.In every case the hypothetical subjects were male, to control for potentially confounding effects of gender.The volunteers were then asked to rate the competence and the morality of the four different categories of individuals — those who bragged and scored high, those who bragged but scored low, those who self-effaced and scored high, and those who self-effaced and scored low.The participants judged the people who bragged about their intelligence and scored high as the most competent. They were even judged as more competent than people who scored high but said they scored low, suggesting that when competence is the issue, it pays to advertise. But correct braggers were not seen as any more moral than people who self-effaced, whether the self-effacers were actually smart or not. In fact, those who claimed to be worse than average were seen as more moral than those who claimed to be better.Participants reserved harsh judgment for individuals who bragged about their performance but were proven wrong by the evidence. Such people were deemed significantly less competent and less moral than any other man. The same was true for undeserving braggers when the test was of their morality, rather than their intelligence.“In all cases, claiming to be better than average when the evidence shows otherwise is the worst strategic move you can make,” Heck said.In a second phase, half of an entirely new group of 200 volunteers did the same thing as participants in the first experiment, though now all the hypothetical men were all talking and testing on intelligence, not morality. Given essentially the same experimental procedure, these volunteers produced very similar results as the participants in the first phase, showing that the results could be replicated in a new group of volunteers.But the other half of the new second-phase group were given something different to consider. Some of them got information on the individuals’ test results, but didn’t know whether they bragged or self-effaced. Others learned who claimed to be better than average and who claimed to be worse, but didn’t see their test results. These volunteers were asked to judge the competence and morality of the different types of hypothetical men.Not surprisingly, people who scored high on the intelligence test were seen as more competent but not any more moral than those who scored low. But when scores were not known, they were caught in the humility paradox: those who bragged about their intelligence were believed to be more competent, but less moral, than those who said they didn’t do well.Combining the results, it was clear in the data that men who were smart and said so were perceived as more competent than men who were smart but didn’t say so, or men who said they were smart but for whom evidence wasn’t available.Meanwhile, self-effacers were perceived as less competent when their scores were not known than men who self-effaced when their scores were known, regardless of what the scores showed. In other words, just declaring oneself to be not particularly smart is worse for one’s perceived competence than being shown to be right about not being smart, or being shown to be smart despite one’s gloomy self-assessment.“This pattern holds an intriguing lesson for a person of low self-confidence,” Heck and Krueger wrote. “The winning strategy might be to abstain from making any self-related assessment unless objective results are at hand.”Scenarios and strategiesIndeed, the paper is rife with such guidance, Heck said. People who want to know whether to brag, to self-efface or to say nothing need to know whether their goal is to improve their perceived competence or morality, and whether the facts back them up, contradict them, or will never be known.“The answer depends on which aspect of your reputation you are concerned with,” Heck said. “If you are more concerned with your perceived morality — your likability, trustworthiness and ethics — the answer is simple: avoid self-enhancing claims, even if the evidence supports them. Here, humility is the best option.“If you are more concerned with your perceived competence — your intelligence or capability to get the job done — things are more nuanced,” he said. “Here, you should only claim to be better than average if you are sure (or fairly certain) that (a) the evidence will support this claim, or (b) supporting evidence will never be revealed. If there is a possibility that the evidence will invalidate your self-enhancing claim, the best option is to simply remain humble.”That can pose a problem for many political candidates, who rarely remain humble, even as they are subjected to fact-checks that don’t always go their way. LinkedIn Emailcenter_img Life is full of auditions in which it might seem advantageous, if not outright required, to describe oneself as above average. Think of job interviews, dating or running for president of the United States. A new study that measured how people judge those who made such boasts and those who didn’t, however, showed that making self-superiority or self-effacement claims is a strategy with considerable complexity and risk, often requiring a person to know whether evidence of their true ability could come to light.Probably the most intuitive result of the study is that there is a significant tradeoff, a “humility paradox,” in which individuals who claim to be of above-average ability will be perceived as more competent, but sometimes less moral, than those who remain humble. And once actual evidence of ability comes into play, those who unduly inflate their self-image pay the steepest price on both aspects of their character.“Our biggest theoretical contribution is that the paper casts the decision to claim to be better than others as a strategic choice,” said Patrick Heck, lead author of the study in Social Psychology and a graduate student in Brown University’s Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences. “It turns out that if you know the evidence isn’t ever going to show up, then your reputation as a competent person is in good shape when you claim to be better than others — but the opposite is true for your reputation as a moral person.” Pinterest Share on Twitterlast_img read more

My digital life: Chris Lynn

first_imgTo continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAY Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe now for unlimited accesslast_img read more

TOUCH LINE BAN FOR MOURINHO IMMINENT

first_imgJose Mounriho could face a touchline ban if he is slapped with another FA charge after his bust up at stamford bridge.The former chelsea boss reacted after Marco Ianni (assistant coach at chelsea) taunted him in front of his team’s bench when Ross Barkley scored a 96th minute equaliser.Mourinho had to be held back by stewards and staff when he went for Ianni, and the brawl continued into the tunnel in a chaotic end to the game.The incident was included in referee Mike Dean’s report of the game, which means that both Mourinho and Ianni could face charges.The United manager is already facing an FA hearing on Wednesday after uttering a string of Portuguese swear words at a television camera following his team’s win over Newcastle two weeks ago.Antonio Rudiger’s early goal gave Chelsea the lead before two strikes from Anthony Martial put United ahead, they looked set for a win until Barkley struck in the sixth minute of injury time.That prompted Ianni, who was sitting in the second row on the bench, to leap up and race into the United technical area before twice taunting Mourinho to his face with fists clenched.RelatedMourinho Escapes Further Punishment After Weekend’s DismissalSeptember 26, 2017In “England”Manchester United: The Team To End Man City’s Stellar Form?November 9, 2018In “England”Mourinho Taunts Conte Over Match Fixing ScandalJanuary 6, 2018In “England”last_img read more

UEFA charges Bulgaria’s soccer federation over racist chants, Nazi salutes

first_imgUEFA has charged the Bulgarian Football Union over racist behavior by home fans during Monday’s Euro 2020 qualifier against England in Sofia.England’s 6-0 win was halted twice before halftime due to racist abuse being directed toward black players in the visitors’ lineup.A section of supporters, who were ejected from Vasil Levski National Stadium, aimed “monkey chants” at Raheem Sterling, Tyrone Mings and Marcus Rashford and were also seen making Nazi salutes.Tuesday’s fallout from the shameful scenes also included BFU president Borislav Mihaylov resigning after Prime Minister Boyko Borissov threatened to cut funding if he did not step down. Prime minister urges Bulgaria’s soccer chief to resign as racist abuse taints England qualifier UEFA to wait on reports before acting on racist abuse in Bulgaria Additionally, an “insufficient number of traveling stewards” means the FA is accused of running afoul of UEFA’s safety and security regulations.UEFA’s Control, Ethics and Disciplinary Body will deal with the case.center_img UEFA president Aleksander Ceferin urged the “football family” and authorities including governments to “wage war on the racists” and his organization has now taken action.A statement issued by UEFA read: “Disciplinary proceedings have been opened following the UEFA European Qualifiers match between Bulgaria and England (0-6), played on October 14.”Charges against Bulgarian Football Union: Racist behaviour (chants, Nazi salutes)… Throwing of objects… Disruption of national anthem… Replays on giant screen.”England’s Football Association must also answer a charge of disrupting a national anthem after visiting fans jeered during the prematch playing of Bulgaria’s anthem. Related News Elsewhere, UEFA is looking into salutes performed by Turkey’s players during their matches against Albania and France – an apparent show of support for their country’s military offensive in Kurdish-held regions in northern Syria.European football’s governing body prohibits provocative political statements inside stadiums.UEFA said: “An Ethics and Disciplinary Inspector has been appointed to initiate disciplinary investigations with regard to potential provocative political behaviour by players of the national team of the Turkish Football Federation on the occasion of the 2020 European Championship Qualifying Round matches played against the national team of the Football Association of Albania on 11 October 2019 and the national team of the French Football Federation on 14 October 2019, respectively.”last_img read more

Suzuki motors to victory

first_imgIPGC Members Green Valley monthly reportSunday, Nov. 7 – Stableford1st Rod Howett 40pts 2nd Joe McArdle 40pts3rd Jack Behan 39pts4th Kevin Hamilton 38ptsThe change in the weather has dried the course and provided good playing conditions with lots of run on the ball.  Rod Howett, an IPGC stalwart and native Londoner enjoyed the improved conditions to record a sparkling score and inch ahead of Joe McArdle to take the honours.  Rod is clearly taking full advantage of the lessons he has been receiving from Al Keith.Jack Behan put in a credible display to take third place, joining Joe in representing Irish hopes.  Kevin Hamilton fought hard for England with a sound 38 points.  There were no ‘2’s today.Sunday, Nov. 14 – Stableford1st Joe Peters 43 Pts2nd Charlie Lapsey 39 Pts3rd Ted Lodge 38 Pts4th Roar Berger 37 PtsAnother busy day with good playing conditions saw the Irish come to the fore.  Joe Peters, a regular IPGC Sunday man, took the honours for Dublin with a scintillating 43 points.  Charlie Lapsey from Donegal played very well off his 8 handicap to take second place.  Ted Lodge, an ex Captain from Rush a quaint Dublin links course, was close behind.  Ted, who plays steadily of his 11 handicap, is never far off the pace.Roar Berger from Norway took fourth place, the only non Irishman to get a mention today.‘2’ were achieved by Joe Peters, Ted Lodge, Alec Hoare, and Paul Egan.Sunday, Nov 21 – Stableford1st Charles Sheppard 40pts2nd Andy Galvin 35pts3rd Joe McArdle 32pts4th Frank McGowan 31ptsThe evergreen Charles Sheppard came out to play today, winning with several lengths to spare.  The Irish stable of Andy Galvin, Joe McArdle, and Frank McGowan ran credible races but were unable to peg back Charles who  had the race at his mercy with several holes to play.Joe McArdle had the only ‘2’ today.Sunday, Nov. 26 – StablefordGreen Valley1st Yasuo Suzuki 41pts2nd Ted Lodge 40pts3rd Brian Talbot 37ptsSilky Oak1st Russell Exley 39pts2nd Barry Wellings 38ptsCharlie Lapsey 37pts CB 21A busy course and large turnout saw two competitions today, one on Green Valley and one on the new Silky Oak.  The later received good reviews and was much enjoyed.On Green Valley Yasuo Suzuki, a regular IPGC man from Japan, scored his best ever round on the course to narrowly defeat the consistent Ted Lodge.  Brian Talbot took the minor honour.Silky Oak brought out the best from our organizer Russell Exley who recorded a tight win over Barry Wellings.  Charlie Lapsey, clearly a cad, beat charming Irish lady Teresa Connelly on count-back for third place.‘2’s today were achieved by Russell Exley, Brian Talbot, and twice by Yasuo Suzuki.Presentations, as always, were conducted at the Golf Centre Bar on the course with amiable hosts John and Geoff, assisted by their lovely staff, taking excellent care of the golfers.Note: If you would like to play with the IPGC members at Green Valley on a Sunday, you can contact mobile 084 782 4582. All transportation to the course is arranged from The Haven leaving at 09.00 and you need to sign up prior to the day.last_img read more

Big names key

first_imgBy Mark Gullick DEVON Meadows produced a strong four-quarter effort to overrun Keysborough by 44 points at Glover Reserve on…[To read the rest of this story Subscribe or Login to the Gazette Access Pass] Thanks for reading the Pakenham Berwick Gazette. Subscribe or Login to read the rest of this content with the Gazette Digital Access Pass subscription.last_img

Prized hoofs on show

first_imgTHE Hoof and Hook competition run by the Parklea Pakenham and District Agricultural and Horticultural Show Society will be again…[To read the rest of this story Subscribe or Login to the Gazette Access Pass] Thanks for reading the Pakenham Berwick Gazette. Subscribe or Login to read the rest of this content with the Gazette Digital Access Pass subscription.last_img

#Nextchat RECAP: Stepping Into Your Role as an HR Department of One

first_imgOn February 13, @SHRMNextchat chatted with Sabrina Baker about Stepping Into Your Role as an HR Department of One. If you missed this excellent chat, on how to be an effective and efficient HR department of one, you can read all of the tweets here or below:last_img

Popular Facebook App Makes Jump to MySpace

first_imgRelated Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… The extremely popular Where I’ve Been Facebook app is today launching a MySpace widget, making it perhaps the first application developed specifically for Facebook that has made the jump to another platform. The app’s creator, Craig Ulliot, also recently formed Where I‚Äôve Been, LLC to manage the application and its growing networking of users.According to Where I’ve Been, the application is the most popular travel networking app on Facebook with 2.6 million users (though as of today, it was ranked second in the travel category using Facebook’s newer active users metric behind TripAdvisor’s “City’s I’ve Been To” app). Where I’ve Been is adding 30,000 new users every day — not bad for a company launched in June.MySpace users can add the widget to their MySpace profiles from the company’s web site. Judging from the site, which reference features like a travel blog and global travel guide, Where I’ve Been is planning to expand beyond just MySpace and leverage its popularity to build an external travel social network. That’s speculation on my part, but their press release about the MySpace widget calls Where I’ve Been, LLC a “start-up company dedicated to developing software for the travel social networking space” and references their Facebook app as their “first product.” I think extracting data from a Facebook app to an external site and expanding to other social networks is a smart move.One of the main criticisms of building an application specifically for a single social platform is that you’re essentially putting all of your eggs in one basket. But Where I’ve Been has shown that Facebook can serve as an amazing catalyst for building a quick user base, which can then be leveraged to expand behind the confines of the Facebook platform. I expect that other Facebook app developers will follow suit by launching on other social networks or by extracting data to outside, standalone web sites.Last month it was rumored that TripAdvisor had purchased Where I’ve Been for $3 million, which would have been the largest acquisition of a Facebook-only application to date. The purchase was denied by both sides. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#news#web josh catone 1last_img read more

The Path to Next-Gen Hyperscale Data Centers: Intel Rack Scale Architecture

first_imgIn their efforts to adapt to the demands of the digital  economy, the Internet of Things, and other disruptive changes, data centers are  facing big technical challenges in terms of flexibility and scale. This is all  because of traditional rigid architectures.Today’s hardware infrastructure for data centers typically comes  as preconfigured 1U or 2U servers with individual processors, memory, I/O, and  network interface controller (NIC). To upgrade or add to this infrastructure, a complete system needs to be built and integrated into the rack, and connected  via management and virtual pooling. This system will essentially operate as a  single unit of compute, meaning its internal resources of CPU, memory, and  dedicated storage are accessed solely by that server, locking down resources that  are not always fully utilized.To complicate the challenges, the conventional server  architecture is in general a vertical deployment model, with many different hardware/software  models present for management. So how can you overcome rigid, expensive,  time-consuming data center build-outs that can’t keep pace with the digital  demands of today? The answers are already here—in the form of disaggregation of  the data center rack.With this new approach to the rack, a logical architecture  disaggregates and pools compute, storage, and network resources and provides a  means to create a shared and automated rack architecture that enables higher  performance, lower cost, and rapid deployment of services. At this point, agility  at hyperscale is no longer a distant dream. Add in analytics-based telemetry  exposed on the disaggregated management controller and you have the foundation  for a new logical architecture—a rack-level system.This new logical architecture is available today in the form  of Intel®  Rack Scale Architecture. This architecture exposes a standard management  framework via REST APIs to discover and retrieve the set of raw components—like  drawers, blades, disks, and pooled resources like processors, memory, and NVMe  disks—in a rack and collectively in a pod. These resources can be provisioned  by a separate management network to compose a compute node or storage node.In addition, a telemetry model is supported that exposes  capacity, capability, and bottlenecks at each component level, thus allowing  the right hosts to be composed for orchestrating a workload. Separation of the  data and virtual management plane from the hardware provisioning and management  plane and telemetry with analytics enables resources such as storage, memory,  and compute to be added as needed, creating flexibility and scalability that  can be fully utilized.Of course, the success of this new logical architecture depends  on the creation of open standards for the configuration and management of the  rack components—such as compute, storage, network, and rack management  controllers. These standards allow IT organizations to connect various hardware  components together to form software-defined systems that more effectively utilize  all the hardware in a disaggregated rack.Intel pioneered the rack scale concept, working closely with  key partners, OEMS, and standards bodies, such as DMTF Redfish. The players in  these collective efforts recognized the importance of working with standards  bodies to enable interoperable hardware, firmware, and software.The resulting Intel Rack Scale Architecture is the result of  an open effort that allows Intel partners and solution providers to innovate  and create diverse solutions to give customers many different choices. At the  same time, the open approach establishes a platform for innovation at various  levels in the data center market. It allows for the architecture to evolve over  time based on hardware innovation and changing customer use cases.At a personal level, the evolution of Intel Rack Scale  Architecture is particularly gratifying, given that I have been part of the  team that worked on this effort from its earliest days. We set out with a focus  on reducing TCO and meeting other business-driven objectives, and now we are  well on our way to achieving the vision, thanks in a large part to a tremendous  amount industry support. Already, many major OEMs are releasing products based  on Intel Rack Scale Architecture and are delivering innovative new designs to their  customers and end users.Looking ahead, here is some of what we see on the horizon:The ongoing disaggregation of compute, I/O,  memory, and storage, which will give data center operators the ability to  upgrade the different components independently of each other, everywhere in the  data centerThe evolution to disaggregated NVMe-as-storage  solutions, pooled FPGA, and disaggregated networks delivered as solutions  architected in rack scaleThe development of an agile orchestration of  hardware layer in open source solutions like OpenStackThe use of high-speed interconnections between  components with less copper and more prevalent optical/wireless technologies,  along with more security and telemetry at every level to drive more efficient  use of resourcesIf you happen to be at the OpenStack Summit in Austin this  week, you can catch multiple presentations on Intel Rack Scale Architecture  along with demos at the Intel booth.And if you’re ready for a technical deep dive at this point,  you can explore the details of Intel Rack Scale firmware and software  components on GitHub: https://github.com/01org/IntelRackScaleArchitecture/last_img read more