India is the 5th largest economy in the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), a fast-developing nation. It is witnessing a massive boom in industrialization, urbanization and population explosion which is putting a surmounting pressure on the nation’s resources and generating a proliferating amount of waste (Economy of India, 2020).India being the second most populous country in the world with a population of 1.3 billion is witnessing a strong declining thrust on the nation’s resources. Therefore, if optimum resource utilization is not taken into consideration, it may lead to an increase in waste generation and pollution, thereby contributing to downfall in the economy. Not only can it downgrade the economy, but also take a toll on the environment and the health of the citizens through harmful emissions. Thus, it is of utmost importance to keep an eye constantly on the utilization and recovery of resources to address the problem associated with municipal solid waste.Municipal solid waste is generally a combination of household and commercial refuse which is generated due to heavy consumerism pattern. The continuous indiscriminate disposal of municipal solid waste is accelerating and is linked to poverty, poor governance, urbanization, population growth, poor standards of living, low level of environmental awareness and inadequate management.The towns and cities of India are still not able to cope up with the uncontrolled urbanization, massive industrialization. It would not be factually wrong if we state that India lacks basic amenities like a proper sewage system, drainage system and integrated solid waste management approaches. With urbanization, there is an influx of population from the rural areas to the urban landscape which thereby contributes to upgrading in lifestyle, consumerism pattern and fashion choices. All these factors have led to a drastic change in the amount of waste generated over the years lately. This has also led to an increased burden on the government, local authorities and the urban local bodies to manage the collection, processing and disposal of waste.According to (Das et al., 1998) in India, more than 90% of the MSW generated finds its way to the landfill sites, often in the most unhygienic manner possible. The landfilling process of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is the most unorganized one, albeit the most used one. The entire process is in omnishambles.In India the meaning of landfilling process has changed to simply dumping the waste in areas outside the city without taking any kind of sanitary measures. The landfills are meant for reducing the exposure between human and environment from toxic waste but it takes a toll on the human as we are exposed to the problems associated with the waste directly i.e from the soil and the groundwater pollution.The improper segregation or lack of segregation facility at the waste generation site causes the accumulation of toxic waste mixture in landfills. The disposal of these toxic chemicals leads to the exposure of rag pickers to these chemicals. The rag picker’s only means of income is by collecting waste but they are not aware of the fact that these waste will be toxic for them, their health as well as their surrounding. The most vulnerable people are the one’s living near the landfills cause it may collapse anytime and thereby claim lives.The chaotic landfills act as a ticking bomb and could create havoc by catching fire anytime. The mountain of waste catches fire when it surmounts the saturation point and no longer withstands the heat due to pilling up of waste.The health problems related to various emissions from landfills include high PM10 exposure, breathing problems, bacterial infections, asthma, elevated cardiovascular risk, and other infections. In India scenario, open dumps are highly prevailing which causes the breeding of mosquitoes, flies, rats, cockroach, and other pests. Some diseases are very common in the population living near the landfill site such as plague, histoplasmosis, murine typhus, malaria, dengue, West Nile fever, etc. as they are caused by the pests breeding in the landfills. Besides potential health hazards, there are concerns regarding the flow of toxins in the food chain of birds and animals, fires and explosions, vegetation damage, unpleasant odour, landfill settlement, groundwater pollution, air pollution and global warming.“The methane released from landfills has a great global warming potential which is 23 times greater than that of the same amount of carbon dioxide” – (EIA, 2003)Waste generation in India:Every year, 2.01 billion tonnes of municipal waste is generated. India produces 277 million tonnes of municipal solid waste every year, according to a 2016 estimate.In India, 77% of waste is disposed of in open dumps, 18% is composted and just 5% is recycled.A significant 34% of all waste is generated by just 16% per cent of the world’s population, largely from high-income countries, but more than one-third of this waste is recovered through recycling and composting.In low-income countries the problem is of waste mismanagement — over 90% of waste is not disposed of correctly, leading to higher emissions and risk of disaster (World Bank’s ‘What A Waste 2.0’ report, 2018).Such an increase in the amount of waste generated has not only laid a burden on the resources of the nation, but has also become a threat to the health, safety and environment of the nation. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to address this problem at the grass-root level.Challenges faced while addressing the problem of MSW in India:Lack of Funding to address the MSW problemCommunication gap between central and state governmentFailure of waste-to-energy recoveryImplementation of rules and regulationsThere is a prevalence of loopholes in the municipal corporations at every stage of waste management i.e from source to disposalThere is a lack of manpower and an insufficient number of professionals in the waste management technology field.Lack of research and development for new technological practicesCONCLUSIONWaste generation has tremendously increased in the past decade and reached 62 million tonnes each year in India. Out of 62 million tonnes of waste, only 43 million tonnes are collected annually and only 28% of it was treated. The rest is dumped in landfills. It is estimated that, by 2030, the waste generation will increase to 165 million tonnes. India is on the verge of becoming the most populated country in the world. Considering the population explosion being a primary factor, it is directly proportional to the amount of waste generation. If the improper treatment of waste and dumping persists, soon the whole country will be under the muck.WAY FORWARDWe the young generation should be aware of the environmental issues and happening in our own country. If we do not address the current dilemma of waste, who will? Young minds and researchers are working in this field to address the problems and even coming up with alternative technologies for more sustainable treatment of MSW, but proper implementation is a myth. There is a prevalence of legal loopholes in every stage of waste management. To save our leftover pristine environment there should be the implementation of ‘GREEN PROTOCOL’ in every state of India. Authorities should buck up and honestly take charge of the whole situation of the blame game between state and the central government.If Thiruvananthapuram and Alappuzha can show the way to waste minimization by decentralizing of waste then why can’t the rest of the country follow the footsteps? Every state can be a pioneer on zero waste if we the people take hold of consumerism pattern and by proper implementation of government policies. Remember, it starts with us and ends at the trash kingdom. Waste should be considered as a resource which can be utilized to extract energy. This notion can only solve the problem related to landfills.It’s time to go to the Trivandrum and Alleppey way!
Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270. Subscribe
Croatia: Transport Minister Roland Zuvanic has introduced a bill into parliament paving the way for restructuring HZ and permitting open access in line with European Union directives, with effect from January 1 2005.Czech Republic: Lostr has completed a prototype Kils 120 km/h high-capacity two-axle covered wagon with 22·5 tonne axleload for bulk palletised cargo. Rebuilt to RIV standards from a Gbgkks wagon, it is owned by AAE Cargo AG and leased to CD.Europe: On June 26 the European Commission was expected to announce that the Unife-sponsored €34m Modtrain project to develop modular train architecture was eligible for funding under the Sixth Framework Programme. This will pave the way for a contract to be signed later this year aimed at developing standard interfaces between components for high speed passenger trains. Project modules include Modcontrol, Modbogie, Modlink and Modpower.Eurotunnel put a fifteenth lorry shuttle trainset into service in June, when the last of seven 7MW shuttle locos was also expected to be delivered. A sixteenth trainset will be delivered in September, completing an expansion programme announced in 1999.Germany: Schleswig-Holstein announced on June 12 that it had awarded a 10-year contract starting in 2005 for operation of regional services between Hamburg and Westerland to Nord-Ostsee-Bahn, a Connex subsidiary. The company plans to use Talgo trainsets with passive tilting hauled by Vossloh-built Type R3000 diesel locomotives.Italy: On June 16 Trenitalia unveiled the first of 600 inter-city carriages to be refurbished by 2004; they were due to enter service between Napoli and Udine on June 22. A further 900 vehicles will be modernised by 2006.ÖBB Rail Cargo of Austria and Lucefin of Italy have opened a multi-function ‘logistics platform’ at San Stino on the main line from Trieste to Venezia. With direct links to the Italian motorway network, the intermodal terminal will be operated by a joint venture called Logistikbetriebsgesellschaft Magazinni Veneto Orientale.South Africa: North-West Province has leased the closed 80 km Pretoria – Magaliesburg line from Transnet and signed an agreement for the Damrail consortium to revive the route, which has suffered from theft of track components.Spain: On May 30 the cabinet approved a decree incorporating into Spanish law EU Directive 2001/16, covering interoperability of conventional networks. Certain Technical Specifications for Interoperability will not apply to the existing 1668mm gauge network.The Ministry of Development has approved the findings of routing studies for the 227·7 km Olmedo – Lubi? n section of the Madrid – Ourense high speed line. The Ministry of the Environment is now considering the impact of a high speed line between Ourense and Vigo.On May 19 FEVE restored through passenger services between León and Bilbao, following the completion of track renewal work between Cordovilla and Arija (RG 6.02 p285). Upgrading of the 10 km Pravia – San Esteban route has been completed at a cost of €3·1m. Following electrification between Trubia and San Esteban, FEVE now operates the Oviedo – San Esteban route as Line F7 of the Metrotrén Asturias network.Work has begun to relay Renfe’s Mérida – Guareña and Zafra – Amendralejo routes in Extremadura with 54 kg/m rail on gauge-convertible concrete sleepers, costing €36·5m for 60·2 km. Sri Lanka: Following the presentation of a report by Rites, the treasury has appointed a special committee to study proposals to restructure the railway sector, including the creation of public-private partnerships.Uganda: URC Managing Director Eng Dan Murungi told a stakeholder conference that agreement has been reached to launch a cross-border freight service with Kenya. An EU grant of €10m in being used to repair bridges between Kampala and Malaba.United Kingdom: Network Rail is to merge its property and major stations activities to create Railway Estates, comprising operational and commercial business areas. USA: The government has invited comments on draft regulations requiring the phasing-in of low-sulphur fuel between 2008 and 2014.BNSF has sold to RailAmerica 463 km of line linking Amory, Mississippi, to Mobile, Alabama, for $15m. RailAmerica’s Alabama & Gulf Coast Railway subsidiary took over on June 1.Uzbekistan: By early June the first 25 km had been completed of a 220 km line which will link Guzar, Baysun and Kumkurgan from 2007. So far 6bn sum of the expected total cost of 112bn sum has been invested in the project.
UK: The Abellio Greater Anglia subsidiary of Dutch national operator NS is to continue operating passenger services between London Liverpool Street and eastern England under a new 27-month franchise agreement announced by the Department for Transport on April 16.The short-term direct award franchise runs from July 14 2014 to October 16 2016. DfT plans to hold a competition next year to award a longer-term Great Anglia franchise.The short-term agreement features a £20m package of improvements which includes:A ‘major refresh’ of MkIII coaches operated on the Norwich – London route, which are to receive new power sockets, carpets, seat covers and lighting;Fitting controlled-emission toilets to the MkIII fleet and Class 321 electric multiple-units;Accessibility improvements to 12 Class 321s ‘as a precursor to further rolling stock improvements which would be agreed as part of the next Greater Anglia franchise’. Abellio will also work with fleet owner Eversholt Leasing to evaluate options for starting refurbishment of a small number of Class 321s before the end of the short-term franchise;New off-peak weekday Cambridge – Stansted Airport services from July 2014, and enhanced Sunday services on the routes to Sheringham, Sudbury and Lowestoft from 2014-15;New on-line compensation arrangements for season ticket holders;Additional cycle parking spaces, with all stations to have cycle parking by October 2016;A 20% increase in funding for Community Rail Partnerships;Completion of station upgrades at Bishop’s Stortford, Cambridge and Chelmsford. ‘This deal delivers much-needed and very welcome service improvements for passengers who have already experienced the limiting effects of one short-term franchise’, said Abellio UK Managing Director Dominic Booth. ‘The extension also sets the course for future development’, he added. ‘We look forward, therefore, to starting a dialogue with stakeholders soon about the requirements for the long-term franchise, and the investments required to create a rail service that will unlock and support the long-term economic development of this important part of the country.’Abellio has dismissed media reports that it is to end its strategy of bidding for rail operating contracts outside the Netherlands. The company says that it will submit its bid for the ScotRail franchise on April 17, is awaiting the outcome of current bids for the Thameslink, Southern & Great Northern and Essex Thameside franchises, and will ‘continue to assess opportunities in the UK, Sweden and Germany.’
GET THE BEST OF THE JAPAN TIMES IN FIVE EASY PIECES WITH TAKE 5 Miyazato got off to a strong start with four birdies on the front nine but was unable to build on the momentum after the turn and dropped shots on the 10th and 15th holes in blustery conditions at Rifu Golf Club. RIFU, Miyagi Pref. – U.S. LPGA tour rookie Ai Miyazato kicked off her bid for a second title of the year on home soil with a 2-under-par 70 and took second place after the first round of the Miyagi TV Dunlop Ladies Open on Friday.Miyazato, who capped her homecoming in style by winning the Japan LPGA Championship by three strokes earlier this month, had four birdies against two bogeys to sit one shot behind early pacesetter Takayo Bando.